Drylands Learning and Capacity Building Initiative
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Addressing Climate Change-Induced Violence- 5 Strategies for Effective Solutions


Article by Hillary Kitel.

In the vast and arid landscapes that stretch across the Kenyan-Ugandan and South Sudan borders, a pressing concern demands our attention – climate change-induced violence among pastoralist communities. These communities, often living at the intersection of tradition and environmental change, are grappling with a complex and increasingly perilous situation.

The heart of the matter lies in the relentless transformation of their environment –  Climate change, with its shifting patterns of rainfall, prolonged droughts, and erratic weather events, has disrupted the delicate equilibrium upon which these pastoralist societies have relied for centuries. Traditional grazing lands and the once-reliable sources of water are now rendered unpredictable, diminished, or altogether inaccessible.

Livestock at a watering hole waiting to drink during there turn due to the drought caused by adverse climate change.Livestock at a watering hole in Kacheliba, West Pokot County. Photo Credits

This environmental upheaval has set the stage for an alarming escalation in competition. Pastoralist communities, who have long depended on these natural resources for their livelihoods, now find themselves in fierce competition for what has become a finite bounty. As the scramble for these dwindling resources intensifies, tensions mount, and conflicts erupt among these communities.

But the issue runs deeper than resource scarcity alone. It strikes at the very heart of their way of life and survival. Diminishing pasturelands force herders to traverse deeper into neighboring territories, triggering territorial disputes and clashes over grazing rights. Similarly, the battle for access to shrinking water sources, vital for their livestock’s survival, has become a source of heightened tensions.

Moreover, climate change doesn’t merely disrupt the pastoralist way of life; it affects their economic stability as well. Livestock, which forms the backbone of their economy, faces dire consequences in the face of prolonged droughts, floods, or disease outbreaks. The resulting decline in livestock health and productivity translates into economic stress, leaving communities with few options. In this desperate struggle, some resort to raiding or livestock theft as a means of survival, further fueling conflicts.

The implications of climate change-induced violence are profound and far-reaching. They extend beyond the loss of lives and property. These conflicts lead to the displacement of entire communities, disrupting the social fabric and eroding the bonds that have held these societies together for generations. In many instances, they perpetuate a tragic cycle of violence, creating significant obstacles to development and impeding peacebuilding efforts in these already vulnerable regions.

Effectively addressing climate change-induced violence requires a multifaceted approach. It involves building resilience among pastoralist communities, resolving conflicts through dialogue, fostering cross-border cooperation, diversifying livelihoods, and mitigating climate change itself. These measures are not only vital for the well-being of these communities but also for the broader goal of global climate action and sustainable peace in these regions.

These conflicts arise due to several factors. First, diminishing pasturelands force herders to encroach on neighboring territories, triggering territorial disputes and clashes over grazing rights. Similarly, water scarcity exacerbates tensions as communities compete for access to dwindling water sources, vital for their livestock’s survival.

Additionally, climate change impacts livestock productivity, leading to economic losses for pastoralists. The decline in livestock health and productivity due to droughts, floods, or disease outbreaks creates economic stress, which further fuels conflicts as communities resort to raiding or theft of livestock as a means of survival.

The consequences of climate change-induced violence are far-reaching. It results in loss of lives, destruction of property, displacement of communities, and disruption of social cohesion. Moreover, these conflicts perpetuate a cycle of violence, hindering development, and impeding peacebuilding efforts in the affected regions.

Addressing climate change-induced violence requires a comprehensive approach. This includes:

  1. Climate Resilience and Adaptation: Implementing climate change adaptation strategies that build resilience among pastoralist communities. This involves promoting sustainable land and water management practices, diversifying livelihoods, and providing access to climate-smart technologies and knowledge
  2. Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding: Engaging communities in conflict resolution mechanisms and promoting dialogue among different pastoralist groups. This involves fostering understanding, promoting peaceful coexistence, and addressing the underlying causes of conflicts.
  3. Cross-Border Cooperation: Encouraging collaboration and cooperation between governments, communities, and relevant stakeholders across national borders. This can involve joint resource management initiatives, sharing best practices, and establishing mechanisms for resolving cross-border conflicts.
  4. Livelihood Diversification: Supporting pastoralist communities in diversifying their livelihoods beyond livestock rearing. This includes promoting alternative income-generating activities, such as agro-pastoralism, beekeeping, and small-scale farming, which are less dependent on climate-sensitive resources.
  5. Climate Change Mitigation: Taking proactive measures to mitigate climate change through sustainable practices, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and advocating for global climate action. Addressing the root causes of climate change is essential to alleviate the pressures on pastoralist communities and reduce the occurrence of climate-induced violence.


By recognizing the complex relationship between climate change and violence among pastoralist communities and implementing targeted interventions, we can work towards building resilient communities, fostering peace, and mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change on vulnerable populations.